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As we all know, the motor is an important part of the transmission and control system. With the development of modern science and technology, the focus of the motor in practical application has begun to shift from the simple transmission to the complex control. In particular, the speed and position of the motor , Precise control of torque. But the motor according to different applications will have a different design and drive the way, ye see the selection is very complex, so in order to people according to the use of rotating electrical machines, carried out a basic classification. Here we will gradually introduce the most representative of the motor, the most commonly used, the most basic motor - control motor and power motor and signal motor.
Control the motor
The control motor is mainly used in the precise speed, position control, in the control system as the "executive body". Can be divided into servo motor, stepper motor, torque motor, switched reluctance motor, brushless DC motor and other categories.
Servo motor is widely used in a variety of control systems, the input voltage signal can be converted to the motor shaft on the mechanical output, drag the controlled components, so as to achieve control purposes. In general, the servo motor requires the motor speed to be controlled by the applied voltage signal; the speed can continuously change with the change of the applied voltage signal; the torque can be controlled by the current output by the controller; The volume is small, the control power to be small. Servo motors are mainly used in a variety of motion control systems, especially the servo system.
Servo motor with DC and AC points, the first servo motor is the general DC motor, the control accuracy is not high, only the use of general DC motor to do the servo motor. With the rapid development of permanent magnet synchronous motor technology, most of the servo motor is AC permanent magnet synchronous servo motor or brushless DC motor.
The stepper motor is an actuator that converts electrical pulses into angular displacements. More popularly, when the stepper driver receives a pulse signal, it drives the stepper motor to rotate a fixed angle in the set direction. We can control the number of pulses to control the motor angular displacement, so as to achieve the purpose of precise positioning; but also by controlling the pulse frequency to control the motor speed and acceleration, so as to achieve the purpose of speed. At present, the more commonly used stepper motor, including reactive stepper motor (VR), permanent magnet stepper motor (PM), hybrid stepper motor (HB) and single-phase stepper motor.
Stepper motor and the difference between the main motor is mainly in its pulse-driven form, it is this feature, stepper motor and modern digital control technology can be combined. However, the stepper motor in the control accuracy, speed range, low-speed performance are not as traditional closed-loop control of the DC servo motor; so the main application is not particularly high accuracy requirements of the occasion. As the stepper motor has the characteristics of simple structure, high reliability and low cost, stepper motor is widely used in various fields of production practice. Especially in the field of CNC machine tool manufacturing, since stepper motor does not need A / D conversion, Directly to the digital pulse signal into angular displacement, it has been considered the ideal CNC machine tool execution elements.
In addition to the application of CNC machine tools, stepper motor can also be used in other machinery, such as automatic feeder as a motor, as a common floppy drive motor, can also be used in printers and plotters.
In addition, the stepper motor there are many defects; due to the stepper motor there is no-load start frequency, so the stepper motor can run at low speed, but if higher than a certain speed can not start, accompanied by sharp whistle; The manufacturer's breakdown driver accuracy may vary widely, the greater the precision of the finer the more difficult to control; and the stepper motor has a large vibration and noise at low speed.
The so-called torque motor is a flat type multi-pole permanent magnet DC motor. Its armature has more slots, the number of segments and the number of series conductors to reduce the torque ripple and speed pulse. Torque motor with two kinds of DC torque motor and AC torque motor.
Among them, the DC torque motor self-inductance reactance is very small, so the response is very good; its output torque and the input current is proportional to the speed and position of the rotor has nothing to do; it can be close to the state and the load directly connected to the low-speed operation Without gear reduction, a high torque-to-inertia ratio can be produced on the load shaft and the system error due to the use of the reduction gear can be eliminated.
AC torque motor can be divided into two kinds of synchronous and asynchronous, the current commonly used squirrel cage asynchronous torque motor, it has a low speed and high torque characteristics. In general, in the textile industry often use AC torque motor, its working principle and structure and single-phase asynchronous motor is the same, but because of the squirrel cage rotor resistance is large, so its mechanical characteristics are softer.
4. Switched reluctance motor
Switched reluctance motor is a new type of speed motor, the structure is extremely simple and strong, low cost, excellent speed performance, the traditional control motor strong competitors, with a strong market potential. But there are also torque ripple, running noise and vibration and other issues, need some time to optimize to adapt to the actual market applications.
Brushless DC motor
Brushless DC motor (BLDCM) is based on the brush DC motor to develop, but its drive current is the letter of the exchange; brushless DC motor can be divided into brushless motor and brushless torque motor The In general, brushless motor drive current there are two, one is trapezoidal wave (usually "square wave"), the other is a sine wave. Sometimes the former called a DC brushless motor, the latter is called AC servo motor, and indeed is also a kind of AC servo motor.
Brushless DC motor in order to reduce the moment of inertia, usually using "slender" structure. Brushless DC motor in the weight and volume than the brush DC motor is much smaller, the corresponding moment of inertia can be reduced by about 40% -50%. As the permanent magnet material processing problems, resulting in the general capacity of brushless DC motors are below 100kW.
Many people know the stepper motor, but in the purchase of the product and do not meet, then the motor program is a very custom program, you can make their own products appropriate, the same can reduce the unnecessary trouble!
Motor program custom, recommended Shenzhen Zhengdezhi Control Co., Ltd., welcome to consult!