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This article describes some of the important stepper motor related technology, for developers to understand the basic principles of stepper motor work provides sufficient information, but also introduced a microcontroller or digital signal processor control stepper motor method.
Stepper motors are also called steppers, which use electromagnetism to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. Stepper motors have many shapes and sizes, but regardless of shape and size, they can be classified into two categories: variable magnetoresistance stepper motor and permanent magnet stepper motor. This article focuses on simpler and more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors.
The construction of stepper motor
The stepper motor is driven by a set of coils wound around the motor fixing member - stator cog. Typically, a circle around the wire is called a solenoid, and in the motor, around the teeth of the wire is called winding, coil, or phase. If the current flow in the coil is shown in Figure 1, and we look down the top of the alvever from the top of the motor, the current flows countercurrently around the two slots. According to Ampere's law and the right hand criterion, such a current will produce an Arctic upward magnetic field.
Now suppose we construct a motor with two windings wound on the stator, with a permanent magnet that can be rotated around the center. This rotatable part is called the rotor. A simple motor, called a biphase bipolar motor, is given because there are two windings on its stator, and its rotor has two poles. If we send current to winding 1 in the direction shown in Figure 2a and no current flows in winding 2, the south pole of the motor rotor will naturally point to the north pole of the stator magnetic field as shown in the figure.
Suppose we cut off the current in winding 1, and the direction of the current to the winding 2 to send current, then the stator's magnetic field will point to the left, and the rotor will rotate, and the stator magnetic field direction consistent.
Then, we cut the current from the winding 2 and deliver the current to the winding 1 in the direction of Figure 2c. Note that the current flow in the winding 1 is opposite to the direction shown. So the stator's magnetic field north pole will point down, resulting in the rotor rotation, the Antarctic also point to the bottom.
Then we cut off the current in winding 1, in accordance with the winding 2 to send current, so the stator magnetic field will point to the right, so that the rotor rotation, the south pole also point to the right.
Finally, we cut the current in winding 2 again and deliver the current as shown in Figure 2a to winding 1, so that the rotor will return to its original position.
At this point, we have completed a cycle of electrical excitation on the motor windings, the motor rotor rotated a full circle. That is, the electrical frequency of the motor is equal to the mechanical frequency of its rotation.