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Knowledge Popularization of Permanent Magnet Stepping Motor

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Knowledge Popularization of Permanent Magnet Stepping Motor

Date:2017-03-16 Author: Click:

Stepper motor is the implementation of components, mechanical and electrical integration is one of the key products, widely used in a variety of automated control systems. With the development of microelectronics and computer technology, stepper motor demand is increasing, in all areas of the national economy have applications.

The stepper motor is an actuator that converts electrical pulses into angular displacements. It is popular to say that when the stepper driver receives a pulse signal, it drives the stepper motor to rotate a fixed angle (called the "step angle") in the set direction, and its rotation is a step by step at a fixed angle The number of control pulses is controlled by the number of control pulses to achieve the purpose of accurate positioning, and the speed and acceleration of the motor rotation are controlled by controlling the pulse frequency to achieve the purpose of speed control. Stepper motor as a control with a special motor, which has no accumulated error (accuracy of 100%), is widely used in a variety of open-loop control.

First, the type of stepper motor

Permanent magnet stepper motor is generally two-phase, torque and physical examination is small, step angle is generally 7.5 degrees or 15 degrees, mostly used for air conditioning wind swing.

Reactive stepper motor common three-phase reaction, step angle of 1.5 degrees.

Hybrid stepper motor common two-phase, three-phase, four-phase, five-phase hybrid. Two-phase and four-phase hybrid can be a general-purpose drive, step angle is mostly 1.8 degrees, with small size, strong distance, low noise characteristics. Five-phase mixed step angle of 0.72 degrees, high resolution, but the drive circuit is complex, wiring trouble. Three-phase mixed step angle of 1.2 degrees, which has more than two-phase, five-phase hybrid more magnetic pole, is conducive to the motor angle of symmetry, and thus more than two-phase, five-phase accuracy is higher, less error, More stable.

Second, the concept of stepper motor永磁步进电机

Stepper motor accuracy: stepper motor accuracy for the step angle of 3% -5%, and not cumulative.

Stepper motor accuracy: stepper motor accuracy for the step angle of 3% -5%, and not cumulative.

Positioning torque: refers to the stepper motor is not energized, the stator lock rotor torque.

Operating frequency: stepper motor does not stop running the highest frequency.

Subdivided drive: the main purpose is to reduce or eliminate the low-frequency stepper motor vibration, improve the operation accuracy of the motor to reduce noise.

Third, the characteristics of stepper motor

1. High-precision positioning.

The biggest feature of the stepper motor is the ability to simply achieve high-precision positioning control. Take the five-phase stepping motor as an example: its positioning basic unit (resolution) is 0.72 degrees (full step) /0.36 degrees (half step), is very small; stop positioning accuracy error in ± 3 points (± 0.05 degrees), and no cumulative error, which can achieve high-precision positioning control. (Stepper motor positioning accuracy depends on the motor itself, the machining accuracy)

2. Position and speed control.

Stepping motor in the input pulse signal, you can enter the number of pulses to do a fixed angle of rotation, and then get a flexible angle control (position control), and can be obtained with the pulse signal frequency (frequency) proportional to the rotation speed.

3. With positioning to maintain force.

When the stepping motor is in the stopped state (when no pulse signal is input), the excitation force is maintained. Therefore, the stop position can be maintained even if the brake is not supported by the mechanical brake.

4. action sensitive.

Stepping motor because of the superior performance, so you can do instantaneous start, stop, forward and reverse, such as fast, frequent positioning action.

5. Open loop control, do not have to rely on the sensor

The control system of the stepper motor is simple and does not require speed sensor (EN positioning, CODER, speed generator) and position sensor (SENSOR) to control the speed and position with the input pulse. But also because of its open circuit control, so the most suitable for short distance, high frequency, high precision and other positioning control occasions.

6. In the low speed with high torque.

Stepper motor in the low speed with a large torque, it can be more than the same level of servo motor to provide greater torque output.

7. High reliability.

The use of stepper motor devices and the use of clutches, reducers and limit switches and other devices compared to stepper motor failure and malfunction, so in the inspection and maintenance is also easier and easier.

8. Small size, high power.

Stepper motor small size, large torque, in a narrow space can also be installed smoothly, and provide high torque output.

Fourth, stepper motor control principle

Stepper motor is a digital control motor, it will pulse signal into angular displacement, that is, to a pulse signal, stepper motor to turn an angle, it is very suitable for single-chip control.

Stepping motor is different from other control motor is the biggest characteristic: it is through the input pulse signal control, that is, the total rotation angle of the motor by the input pulse number, and the motor speed is determined by the pulse signal frequency.

The driving circuit of the stepping motor operates according to the control signal, and the control signal is generated by the single chip. The basic principles are as follows:

(A) control the commutation sequence.

The process of commutation commutation is called pulse assignment. For example: three-phase stepper motor three beat mode, the power phase of each phase A-B-C-D, power control pulse must be strictly in accordance with the order of control of A, B, C, D, On and off.

(B) control stepper motor steering.

If the given mode of work is positive sequence phase power, the stepper motor is running; if the reverse order commutation, the stepper motor is reversed.

(C) control the speed of the stepper motor.

If you send a control pulse to the stepper motor, it takes another step and sends a pulse, and it takes another step. The shorter the interval between the two pulses, the faster the stepper motor will turn. Adjust the pulse frequency emitted by the microcontroller, you can speed the stepper motor.



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